Posted by Shyle on 12:59 AM in
Lesson Guide in Science and Health IV
First Grading Period
I. Objective
A.  Explain how  the skeletal  system enables us to  move
B.  Demonstrate how the skeletal system enables us to move through making a model
C.   Tell how to be careful in order to protect the joints in the body
Value Integration: Carefulness

II. Subject-Matter
            Explaining on How  the Skeletal  System Enables Us to  Move
A. Science Concept: A joint is the point or part where two or more bones connect. There are two kinds of joint: immovable or fixed joint and movable joint.
                                   Movable joints are ball-and-socket joint, hinge joint, pivot joint.
B. Science Processes: Observing,  Communicating, Inferring
C. References: Science Spectrum 4, pp. 5-8, Rebecca R. Fallaria, Nenita A. Apolinario, Jesse D. Ronquillo, Into the Future: Science and Health 4, pp 6-8, Science for Daily Use 4, 6-7,PELC #1.4, p.1
D. Materials: Model of the skeletal system, chart
E. Strategy Used:   4 A’s Strategy

III. Procedures:
            A. Activities:
                        1. Singing of the action song, “Put Your Right Thumbs In”
2. a.    Divide the class into five. Let them perform activity 1.2 of p. 7 of Science Spectrum 4.
                         Activity # ____ – Observing Some Joints
 What You need: fresh (uncooked) chicken leg, knife
What To Do: 1. Examine a fresh (uncooked) chicken leg.
                        2. Move the chicken’s leg up and down.
                     3. Carefully remove the skin and muscles that cover the bones.  See  what is at the end of the muscle.
                     4. Look at the point where the bones meet. Examine the structure that connects the bones.
                     5. See if you can move the bones at the joints. Try to bend, straighten, and rotate them also.
                     6. Cut the structure that connects the bones.       
                             b. Let each group reporter to do the reporting after.
            B. Analysis:
                        1. (Singing of the action song)
                            a. What are the movements of your body you have done while singing?
     b. What can you say about the movements of your legs, hips, arms, hands and fingers?
     c. At what points can you move the bones?

                        2.  (Group Activity)
                            a. Do you notice the cordlike bands attached to the joint?
                            b. How it help the movement of the bones?
                            c. How are the moving bones joined?
                            d. How do the kind of joints relate to the movements?
                            c. Why can’t you bend and straighten the chicken’s leg, when you cut the bands?
            C. Abstraction:
1. Input: Discussion on the various joints, the location and the movements of the joints.
A joint is an area where one bone meets another bone.
1. Fixed joint or immovable joint, the bones are tightly held together such  that they cannot move.
2. Movable joints allow bones to move.
            a. A hinge joint allows forward and backward movements in only one plane.
            b. A pivot joint allows rotating motion.
            c. A ball-and-socket joint allows the great freedom of movement.

Ligaments a strong and fibrous tissues that hold together the bones at the joint.
Cartilage is an elastic and smooth layer that protects movable joints from wear and tear in several ways.
Synovial Fluid is a liquid that keeps the joints moist and lubricated.

-         How  are the bones of the skeletal system held together?
-         What are the kinds of joint and their movements?
-         Can you explain why the skeletal system enable us to move?
-         How important are the joints? ligaments, cartilage and synovial fluid?

Value Integration:  If one of our joint is weak, the whole body is affected. What would you do in order to protect all joints in our body?
            2. Generalization:  How do joints in the skeletal system enable us to move?
IV.           D. Application: (using rubric scoring guide)
a. Construct a model of a leg or arm by a hinge joint, using cardboard and round fastener. Demonstrate how it moves. Then explain how do joints in the skeletal system enable us to move.
            b. Rico and Niel were climbing on the guyabano tree. They wanted to get some fruits from it. Unfortunately, Rico was slipped on one of its small branches and fell down. He screamed for pain because his right leg was aching. What do you think happened to the joints of Rico’s leg?
V.             E. Enrichment Activities
                   Interview a physician or a nurse and find out why the amount of synovial fluid in the joint decreases.

                                                                        Prepared by:

                                                                        ROCHELL R. CABAHUG
                                                                        OCCES GT/SSES 4 Adviser 



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